Dude’s Brydge Keyboard Review

I have been through a lot of keyboards and keyboard cases since I upgraded to my new iPad in May. Some were good, some were returned the same day. I am very picky when it comes to keyboards. Some might say I am a little OCD about them. My thing is that I want a functional keyboard which works best for my needs.

After reviewing many, I have finally settled on the best one for me. It is the Brydge Keyboard.

It isn’t perfect but it is pretty darn close.

Here are the things I love about it:

#1 – I can easily detach the iPad when I don’t need the keyboard.

There are times that I want to use my iPad as a tablet. I don’t want to be stuck with a laptop configuration. My situation (and moods) change so I like having this option. The iPad is connected to the Brydge keyboard by two connectors which hold the iPad at multiple angles.

#2 – The keyboard is sturdy.

You can actually use the Brydge keyboard on your lap. That was the one thing I had against my last keyboard case. It was a nifty keyboard case but I could not use my iPad in my lap like I could a laptop.

#3 – Backlit keys

This is a must-have for me. My eyes aren’t as good as they used to be so when the lights are low, I need a little help with seeing the keys. Although I am a good typist, I still need to see the keys to make sure I’m in the right place on the keyboard.

#4 – Makes the iPad your alternate laptop

The keyboard turns your iPad into a MacBook Air. It doesn’t add a lot of weight but enough so it feels and functions like a laptop when you need it. This keyboard is what kept me from asking Santa for a new laptop.

#5 – Additional cover completely protects iPad

Although the keyboard easily attaches to the iPad, there isn’t a cover for the back of the iPad unless you order the additional cover from Brydge. I don’t know why they can’t include that in the package but it is worth the extra expense to protect your device.

So what are the things I don’t necessarily like about the Brydge keyboard?

#1 – The keys are a bit stiff

I am a fast typist so I fly around on the keyboard. The keys on the Brydge can be a bit less fluid in the typing experience. I have had to adjust my typing slightly.

#2 – No place for the Apple Pencil

I love using my Apple Pencil sometimes but there is no place to store it with the Brydge keyboard. Not a deal breaker but I would have been nice to have a slot for it. I am currently looking at attachments to add something to keep my pencil.

#3 – Durability of iPad clips

As I said before, I love having the option of easily detaching my iPad from the keyboard when I want a tablet. Although the clips to hold the iPad are good and snug now, I worry that repeated detaching/attaching might degrade the clips over time.

#4 – Price

This keyboard is not cheap. Fortunately I purchased mine for $50 less on eBay instead of Amazon or directly from Brydge. The keyboard was priced at $129.99 but are now on sale for $79.99. I would still say it’s better than any other keyboard or keyboard case available (and I have studied this in-depth).

It is my personal opinion that the Brydge keyboard is the best keyboard accessory for your iPad. It will help you to be productive in using your iPad as an alternate laptop when you need it. As a writer, it is the perfect companion for me when I get inspiration or perform edits on current writing projects.

The Brydge keyboard does a great job of bridging the gap between laptop and tablet.

Can We Really Agree To Disagree?

We don’t all agree. That point is definitely something we can certainly all agree on. When the subject of politics or religion comes up I can tell you that there will be a lot of disagreement.

Over the past four years, I have seen just how people agree to disagree. The fact is that you can’t disagree. There is no agreement about it. If you don’t like someone’s politics or whatever the issue is then instead of agreeing to disagree, you are wrong or intimidated to feel stupid if you don’t agree.

Social media has made things much more heated with people being able to post hateful comments and protected by the anonymity of their screens. You can’t have your own opinion because someone will attack it simply because they don’t agree whether they have legitimate proof or not.

Most recently, I have chosen to turn off the comments to my blog because I don’t need to read any of them. Positive or Negative. I don’t need them. I have a right to my own opinion without being attacked for them. What I post in my blog is my opinion and I don’t need to debate anyone about it. If someone doesn’t agree with me, they are welcome to start their own blog or social media site. I agree we can disagree but it simply doesn’t work. It is sad how people look for reasons to attack someone and tear them down.

So this notion that we can agree to disagree is total bull hockey. It doesn’t exist. It seems we can’t simply have our own opinions without being attacked for being labeled a Democrat or Republican. If we all have a right to our opinions, it shouldn’t matter. We all have our opinions and shouldn’t be intimidated to change them just to go along with the crowd.

Don’t be bullied about your opinion. We can still get along and not agree. The Bible even says “if it is up to you, live in peace with everyone.” (Romans 12:18) Let us have our opinions, even if you don’t agree. If you really mean that you can agree to disagree then do it. Don’t say that when everyone is agreeing with you.

If you think you can change someone’s opinion, good luck with that. I have never seen anyone change their opinion when someone disagrees with them. I have never personally witnessed someone change their minds. Debating is a waste of time. No one wins. It becomes an arms race in the battle of wits. I am not a quick-witted person so I choose not to involve myself in debates.

I think we can have our opinions and live in peace with others. We don’t always have to push our opinions. Just treat people with respect and refrain from using your trigger finger on the keyboard to post a reply or comment to tear someone down. It takes a lot more courage to encourage someone. After the year that we have had, we all need some encouraging words. If you can’t do that, then don’t say anything at all.

So if you’re looking for the comment option on this post, don’t waste your time. It won’t be there. I don’t have time for haters. Just agree that we can disagree.

Why Do The Detroit Lions Always Play On Thanksgiving?

Of all the traditions we have for Thanksgiving, if there is a football game on the television, you can be sure that the Detroit Lions will be playing. For most of us, this is the only time we even take notice of the Lions. They are usually horrible.

So why are we forced to watch the Detroit Lions as we consume our Thanksgiving meals?

The Lions have played on Thanksgiving Day since 1934 when they lost to the Chicago Bears 19-16. The game was played before a record crowd of 26,000 at University of Detroit Stadium. The Bears clinched the NFL’s Western Division title with the win over the Lions. Detroit actually had a 16-7 lead at halftime before the Bears came back in the second half with two field goals then a fourth quarter interception by Joe Zeller returned the ball to the Lion’s four-yard line. Bronko Nagurski tossed the game-winning touchdown pass to Bill Hewitt.

In fact, they played the Bears in the first six Thanksgiving Day games.

George A. Richards, who was the Lions’ owner at the time is the one to blame. He decided to use the Thanksgiving Day game as a marketing idea to attract more fans. Richards also owned a radio station which was an affiliate of NBC. So, a little influence in the media markets developed what is today’s Thanksgiving tradition of watching the Detroit Lions. This is why most folks are enjoying a nice nap after their Thanksgiving meal.

The Lions haven’t been a dominate team on Turkey Day as they have a 37-41-2 record in the games. Their longest winning streak was six games from 1950-1955. The longest losing streak the series was from 2004-2012 losing nine straight games. The Lions did not play from 1939-1944 due to World War II.

The only team that the Lions have not yet played on Thanksgiving Day are the Jacksonville Jaguars. The most common teams the Lions have played are the Green Bay Packers (21 times) and Chicago Bears (18 times).

This year the Lions will play their 81st game on Thanksgiving Day against the Houston Texans. Both teams enter the game with losing records (4-6 and 3-7 respectively). The Texans have only played once before in 2012.

Other teams have played on Thanksgiving Day which do not involve the Detroit Lions. The Dallas Cowboys have traditionally played the game after the Lions. In overall Thanksgiving games, the New Orleans Saints (3-0), Baltimore Ravens (2-0), Carolina Panthers (1-0) and Houston Texans (1-0) are undefeated on Thanksgiving Day.

So once again the Lions will play on what will be the COVID edition of the Thanksgiving Day game. This year’s game will set the record for least number of fans attending as no fans will be allowed to attend due to Michigan’s emergency order prohibiting large gatherings due to recent spikes in COVID-19 cases.

What If No One Reads What You Write?

Writing is not for the faint of heart. It can be a lonely existence. Perhaps the biggest fear of a writer is that no one will read what you write. What if you write and publish a novel that nobody reads? Are you a writer if no one reads what you write? Do we simply write for the sake of others reading what we write? Sounds a little self-serving doesn’t it? It can also be a humbling experience as well.

I recently self-published my third book. After over two years of writing, editing and trying to find an agent (unsuccessfully), I put my novel out into the ebook universe. The book sales haven’t exactly rolled in and I still have to work my day job. To date I have only sold ONE book. ONE. Nothing to brag about. Talk about humbling. I guess one is better than none. I don’t know who that one person is but they did give it five stars.

I also paid $250 for advertising for another book and now I wish I had that $250 back. That advertising campaign netted ONE book sale. Does one or two books sales make me a failure as a writer? It depends on perspective and expectations.

So why do I write? I have asked myself that question many times when I get a little down about the results. But then I realize I keep writing and I can seem to stop. It’s just something I do. I am hooked. Addicted.

I am a writer because I write.

It certainly isn’t for the fame and fortune because that hasn’t happened and the reality is that it isn’t likely to happen. Most writers have the fantasy of hitting it big. Publishing a bestseller. Quitting their day jobs for writing books. When you are a writer, you have to manage your expectations. If you don’t, you WILL be disappointed. In order to manage your expectations, you have to constantly adjust your writing to meet those expectations.

I have come to the conclusion that I will no longer write anymore books. Writing novels is a long, grueling process. If no one is going to read it then why put myself through it? I have some drafts of other novels and outlines of others but I doubt that I will publish them. I think it’s time to focus on other writing that isn’t so grueling such as blogs, short stories and shorter projects. Again, it’s part of managing your expectations.

Being a writer means you write. You do it because you feel that you must do it. Writers take a leap of faith when they write. Writing will either be read or it won’t. That’s the risk we take.

Maybe the reason I write is because I am an introvert. I don’t say much in person so the words on a screen or a page does a better job of expressing my thoughts. My voice is usually not heard or silent so writing is probably my voice.

So I write. Sometimes for others but mostly for me.

“I write because one day I will be gone, but what I believed and felt will live on.” Shannon L. Alder

The Evolution of eDiscovery

The term eDiscovery has been the buzzword in the legal field for the past several years. Since I began in Litigation Support in the late 1990s, I have personally witnessed the evolution of eDiscovery.

The term eDiscovery is the electronic aspect of identifying, collecting and producing electronically stored information (ESI) in response to a request for production in a law suit or investigation. Electronically stored information can be emails, documents, presentations, spreadsheets, databases, voicemails, audio and video files, social media and websites. Anything electronically stored can potentially be eDiscovery.

I remember back in the day when an investigator told me that he had a few boxes of documents that needed to be bates numbered and scanned. The “few” boxes turned into a van full of banker’s boxes. I learned that people have different definitions for the word “few”. So, I worked with a legal assistant the entire week manually applying bates labels to every page in those “few” banker’s boxes before scanning them.

We’ve come a long way.

I rarely see boxes of paper anymore. I still have a high-speed, high-volume scanner and I run paper through it occasionally to keep it in working order. Today, I mostly see hard drives, flash drives, discs and shared folder downloads.

In the early days of eDiscovery, the magic word was “metadata” that freaked everyone out when they realized that there was hidden data inside of most electronic documents. I laughed at the common definition of metadata at the time about it being “data about data”. That really didn’t explain the term very well to the legal staff looking at me like deer in headlights. Metadata is hidden information that is contained in any electronically stored data. This can be date created, date modified, who modified it and other pertinent information about the data that you can’t see just by opening the file in it’s native software. For instance, if you open a Microsoft Word document, you can’t see who created it or who modified it as well as additional information that isn’t visible to the average user.

We’re dealing with less paper today but…

I used to cringe at the news of having rooms of banker’s boxes in a case, now just one 4TB hard drive can force me into the fetal position. There is a whole lot more data to sort through today.

The depth of eDiscovery can come in many forms such as smart phones, computers, flash drives, emails and so much more. Just when you think you’ve covered it all, there is always something else you’ve missed. It can really be scary at times. I used to worry about missing something but now I have learned only to focus on what I have, not what I don’t have.

The tools used for eDiscovery continue to improve. When I first started in this journey, I had a system called “DocStar” which became my office’s first document processing workstation. It was a start. Fortunately, the technology has changed. We now have complex systems that are designed to process many types of electronic data. I’m glad to see the advancements in software to meet the challenges of eDiscovery.

Even with the voluminous volume of electronic discovery today, I am not longing for the days we had paper and sitting in a room for days applying physical bates labels to paper documents. I don’t want to go back. I’m looking forward to the future.

When Prophets Get It Wrong

In my last blog, I revealed two of the many false prophets who alleged that God told them that Donald Trump would win re-election. I also witnessed the embarrassing “Holy Spirit laughter” that Kenneth Copeland performed for his followers.

Again, this was yet another embarrassment to God and His true followers.

So what happens when prophets get it wrong?

#1 – They blame the devil

The forces of evil were obviously too powerful to overcome. Apparently the angels from South America that Paula White summoned were hindered from getting here in time.

#2 – They say nothing

Admit no wrong or take responsibility for getting their predictions wrong or that they failed in actually hearing from God.

#3 – Lack of faith from their followers

This is another way to deflect the failure of their prophecies. Blame their followers and their lack of “sowing seeds” into their ministries to get the job done.

#4 – “I got it wrong but…that doesn’t make me a false prophet”

I don’t expect that most will admit they got it wrong but if they do , they will have a good explanation and a Bible reference to back them up.

Kris Vallotton, a senior associate leader at Bethel Church in Redding, California prophesied that Donald Trump would win re-election. He posted an apology on Instagram but then took it down when he believed the claims of election fraud. Initially he said, “I was wrong. I take full responsibility for being wrong. There’s no excuse for it. I think it doesn’t make me a false prophet, but it does actually create a credibility gap.”

Ya think?

Christianity Today wrote: “Mistakes in prophecy do not make everyone who’s mistaken a false prophet, any more than mistakes in teaching make everyone who’s mistaken a false teacher.”

Well that’s a convenient way for them to save face don’t you think? So a “false prophet” isn’t someone who said that God told them something when He didn’t? When was that definition changed?

A false prophet is a person who falsely claims the gift of prophecy or divine inspiration, or to speak for God, or who makes such claims for evil ends.

If they claim God said something that He didn’t then that makes them a false prophet. That’s not too difficult to define. The truth hurts just like the election results to most evangelicals.

Okay, so these folks got ONE prophecy wrong. Does that make them false prophets? They can’t be expected to be perfect right? Isn’t there a “three strikes rule” or something?

The problem is that these people aren’t prophets. They claim to be prophets because they want to be special as if they are some super spiritual leader just because they think they have the “gift” of prophecy. Being a prophet is a very serious thing and something that shouldn’t be taken lightly for popularity. When prophets got it wrong in the Old Testament days, it didn’t end well for them.

It seems very odd that I haven’t found anyone that actually predicted that Joe Biden would win the election. Some are still clinging to the idea that a supernatural event is going to happen and make their predictions that Trump with have a second term.

I once heard a preacher say that the enemy of the church isn’t the devil. The enemy of the church is pride. The Bible says that God resists the proud. These superstars are too full of pride to admit their were wrong or risk being accused of being a false prophet because of their false predictions.

I came from a church where I witnessed spiritual abuse. People claiming to hear from God when they didn’t. They were only trying to push some sort of religious agenda or manipulate the emotions of their congregations. I believe that there are prophets today. I just don’t think they have multi-million dollar ministries and fly their private jets around the world.

Chris Roseborough of Pirate Christian Radio has a YouTube channel called “Fighting for the Faith” and I found one of his recent videos that were spot on with this subject. You can view the video here.

Back in my past life, I used to watch these televangelist and even sipped on the koolaide myself. In fact, on the 700 Club I have seen their folks have prayers at the end of their programs and during the prayer they would share a “word of knowledge” where they would say something like “There is a man named Robert who is having pain in his kidneys right now but God is healing that right now.” And then they would finish this prayer with the magic phrase “in Jesus’ name”.

The Bible says that “for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light” (2 Corinthians 11:14)

It’s time to stop the foolishness and trying to be God’s Superstar in Christianity. What the nation needs now is unity and hope, not division and even more reasons not to be a Christian.

Next on the Election 2020 Reality Show…

In the current reality show being acted out daily on the news, it seems that the election just won’t end. Although the election has been called for Joe Biden as most elections have been called in the past, the current administration is refusing concession. Contrary to what people think, there still is a process ongoing with making the election outcome official. The United States Electoral College continues their work in completing the election. A candidate’s concession or failure to make a concession speech does not impact the duties and responsibilities related to the Electoral College system.

So what’s next in the process?

The next big date on the election calendar is December 14th. This is when the electors meet in their state capitals to officially pledge their votes. I wouldn’t count on a smooth process for this procedure either. This has been 2020 and anything could happen. Electorates are supposed to be bound to vote for candidate who received the most votes. Essentially, this is the candidate with the most popular votes in each state. So can electors refuse or change their votes? Yes, it has happened and these are called “faithless electors”.

In 2016 there were 10 faithless electors.

  • In Washington, Democratic Party electors gave three presidential votes to Colin Powell and one to Faith Spotted Eagle and these electors cast vice-presidential votes for Elizabeth Warren, Maria Cantwell, Susan Collins, and Winona LaDuke.
  • In Hawaii, Bernie Sanders received one presidential vote and Elizabeth Warren received one vice-presidential vote.
  • In Texas, Christopher Suprun voted for John Kasich for president and another elector voted for Ron Paul, giving each one presidential vote. Suprun also voted for Carly Fiorina as vice president while the other elector voted for Mike Pence as pledged.

In addition, three other electors attempted to vote against their pledges but had their votes invalidated:

  • In Colorado, Kasich received one vote for president, which was invalidated, and the elector was replaced by one who cast a vote for Clinton.
  • In Maine, a Democratic Party elector voted for Bernie Sanders but was forced to cast a vote for Clinton.
  • In Minnesota, another Democratic Party elector tried to do the same but was replaced by one who cast a vote for Clinton. The same Minnesota elector voted for Tulsi Gabbard for vice president but had that vote invalidated and given to Tim Kaine.

Faithless electors have never changed the outcome of a Presidential election.

So, if you are hoping for the drama of Election 2020 to be over, mark your calendars for December 14th.

Click here if you want to read more about the Electoral College and the electoral process.

Beware of False Prophets!

It upsets me to hear so-called celebrity preachers make it their mission to convince us that they can hear from God. In the past week, I have heard and seen two well-known Christian personalities predict the results of the Presidential election. Both Pat Robertson and Paula White promoted themselves as representatives of God in announcing that Donald Trump would win re-election.

He didn’t.

“First of all, I want to say without question, Trump is going to win the election,’’ Robertson told us.

Paula White, President Trump’s “spiritual advisor” while speaking in tongues said that angels were on their way from Africa and South America to assist with the election to secure Trump’s victory.

They were wrong.

So doesn’t that make them false prophets?

In Deuteronomy 18:20, A false prophet is a person who “presumes to speak in My name anything I have not commanded, or a prophet who speaks in the name of other gods.” They also offer false visions, divinations, idolatries AND DELUSIONS OF THEIR OWN MINDS. (Jeremiah 14:14)

Today’s false prophets should be thankful they aren’t living in the Old Testament times.

I think delusions accurately describe the predictions from Robertson and White. I am sure they will explain their errors that their followers will believe and maintain their million dollar ministries but the truth is that they are false prophets. They should remove themselves from their pulpits and stop giving God a bad name. Most importantly, they should stop speaking for God when He hasn’t spoken to them.

God did not tell Robertson that Trump was going to win and White did not summon angels from other parts of the world to do her bidding. It makes me wonder if they may be speaking for the wrong team. It would certainly seem that way.

Be careful who you listen to. If someone tries to tell you that “God told me….” that should be a red flag. Use your common sense and keep the verse in Matthew 7:15 in mind that warns us to “Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.”

People like Robertson and White make the job for true prophets and ministries much more difficult with their antics. They are an embarrassment to God and will be held accountable for misleading their followers. Robertson and White aren’t the only ones. They are just the more public attention seekers that we have seen over the past week while votes were being counted. There have been many preachers standing behind their pulpits using their position to persuade their congregations on what God has “told” them about the election and who to vote for.

Stop telling people that God has told you something when He hasn’t. Stop the ridiculous act of speaking in tongues in an attempt to make your predictions legitimate. That is not the function of the speaking in tongues. Too many use it to manipulate people into thinking God is speaking.

Don’t send your money to support these ministries. Read the Bible for yourself and talk to God for yourself and don’t embarrass God and the hard work many good people are doing by telling us that God has shared some secret with you.

Robertson and White should step down. God would certainly tell them that if they were truly hearing from Him.

Does A Writer Need The Freewrite Traveler?

Look, I love new tech gadgets and when I saw the campaign for the Freewrite traveler over two years ago, I jumped onboard and paid the $349 price tag as a backer. This new “distraction-free” device was what I thought would replace my Alphasmart device that I used to create drafts or any type of minimalist writing.

The delays of the release of the Traveler brewed quite a bit of frustration. Eventually, Astrohaus, makers of the Traveler, announced that the device was being shipped October 27th. I finally received mine two days later. I sold it on eBay two days after that. Yep, that was my disappointment with the long awaited device.

The dealbreaker for me was the lag time between pressing the key and the letter appearing on the e-ink screen. I couldn’t get past that frustration with the Traveler.

A writer doesn’t need the Traveler. You just need discipline.

The Traveler is basically designed to be a first draft device. Editing is very limited. The idea is just to set your inspiration free and avoid distractions. Just write.

Send me $429 (the current listed price for the Traveler) and I will give you some advice. Just write. Oddly enough, I am trying this post on my iPhone. Just grab whatever is available. That’s the great thing for writers and technology that is available to us today. With cloud technology, our writing is available wherever we go on any device we have that connects to the Internet.

You don’t need an expensive device just for writing. Use what you have that works into your workflow. For me, the Traveler didn’t fit.

If you want to spend money on something, spend it on a laptop instead. You always have the ability to turn off the distractions. A good laptop will benefit a writer much more than a niche device.

I really wanted to like the Traveler. It was an epic letdown for me and I don’t like being disappointed but I faced the reality of the way I work. I felt like I was forcing the Traveler to fit my workflow.

The point is….just write. You don’t need a special device to do it.

Who Would God Endorse For President?

As we finally approach Election Day in the United States, most of us are quite weary of the political battle from this year’s presidential race.  Without a doubt our country is sharply divided in their support.  Honestly, I don’t know if we are living up to the definition of being united.

So, who does God support in this election?   Does He want us to vote for Biden or Trump?  Who would He endorse?

While God IS concerned about the outcome, He is not going to tell you who to vote for.  That decision still goes back to the issue of our free will.  Even in the Old Testament, the Israelites complained that they wanted a king like the other nations.  God relented and gave them what they wanted. (1 Samuel 8) They had some good and some bad kings of it because of their own choices.  Yeah, that is quite a lame explanation but God isn’t going to tell you who you should vote for and He hasn’t told anyone – even Pat Robertson – who is going to win.  It is also unacceptable for any preacher to stand behind their pulpit and tell you who you should vote for.  If you attend a church like that then I suggest you leave it.  It’s not up to a religious leader to spiritually manipulate anyone to vote one way or the other.

People will want to say it isn’t about the integrity of the person running for office that’s important, it’s about the agenda of their party.

Really?

You could spend hours picking apart the pros and cons of each party to support your case but you won’t find the answer there.

The integrity of a leader IS important.   So, which one is that between Biden and Trump?  I have already cast my vote but regardless who I voted for I do not think they are the perfect leader. 

God wants us to make an informed decision but the problem is that there are so many skewed views that it is almost impossible for some people to make a decision.

The Bible tells us that ultimately God is in control.  Frankly, at this point in time I don’t see any evidence of that.  We are in complete chaos with the pandemic, racial injustice and lawlessness.  Whoever wins the election is going to have their hands full.  I wouldn’t want the job.

The thing that God did tell us to do was to pray for our leaders.  (1 Timothy 2:2) We should do that with whoever is in charge.  We certainly need to do a lot of that.  Just think about it – the job as President of the United States of America is a heavy, heavy burden for anyone.  Regardless of what you do, they won’t make everyone happy.  It amazes me that we are entrusting these duties with men in their 70s.  When many are retired at that age, one of these two men will have a job that will seriously age them even more.

Does it matter to God who our president is?  Of course, it does but how will it work into his plan?  None of us knows.  It is my hope that we will become the UNITED States of America instead of what we have become.

You and I as voters have only one vote.  That’s all we can do.  Whatever happens we still trust God and leave the results up to Him.

It’s in these times that free will sucks.  We could seriously get this wrong.  I would prefer God to tell us “Thou shalt vote for….” But He’s not going to do that. 

Regardless of the outcome, let us be the best that we can be.  Let’s maintain our integrity.  We can’t control what others do; we can only control ourselves and our own actions.  Honestly neither Biden or Trump knows us personally but God does. 

God isn’t going to endorse a candidate.  That’s our choice.  Good or bad we will have to live with that choice.  I have a feeling that it’s going to be messy.  I hope America makes the right choice.